Intro to Leo Programming Language – An Automation to transfer Cryptographically Data

Aleo has a place along a solid compiler team to make an awfully bold circuit compiler language. The core aim of this endeavor is to permit developers to form use of zero data proofs in their applications in as straightforward a fashion as potential – it achieves this by minimizing cryptographical data necessities. Thus, however, specifically will Leo deliver the goods this, and what does one ought to recognize to induce started victimization? Let’s ascertain.

Key Ideas

First off, let’s concisely inform ourselves what a zero data proof is. it’s some piece of information that proves that we have a tendency to ran a computation correctly; as an example, that we have a tendency to used a non-public key to send associate degree NFT to someone, or that we’ve some attribute that permits United States to update the state of associate degree app. Moreover it permits United States to stay some information secret if we have a tendency to wish; as an example we have a tendency to don’t have to be compelled to reveal that personal key we have a tendency to accustomed send the NFT and also the proof information is additionally way smaller than the total computation, thus it’ll need tons less space for storing (on chain) and be faster to speak.

  • This is an awfully abstract plan, thus maybe it’ll be a lot more relatable if we have a tendency to link it to measurability problems. We have a tendency to square measure seeing across the business right away. 
  • Investigate the problem of completely different chain square measures having in obtaining enough transactions per second, and also the clamor for scaling solutions to expand the likelihood of on-chain diversion. 
  • Tools like state sharding are useful, however, we’d like to feature in addition to supporting the expansion of those use cases (and the long run use cases we have a tendency to don’t even recognize yet). 

Moreover, ZKPs additionally enable the United States to cover information we have a tendency to don’t wish to reveal; after all that’s not a chance for different scaling solutions.

ZK Circuit Applications

Now, however, does one build a ZKP? Well, this is often created for the United States by a signal system and one thing known as a ZK circuit – it’s really the circuit that we’re planning to have to be compelled to build, and this is often what Leo can do for you! The libraries that flip ZK circuits into proofs exist already, to date individuals are victimizing these libraries directly.


  • ZK circuits are considerably similar, except that rather than NAND gates they’re made of addition and multiplication gates, and rather than zeros and ones we’ve numbers between zero and p, wherever p could be a phenomenally massive prime quantity. square measure you begin to see that we’d  be ready to just do the maximum amount computation in ZK circuits as we are able to in real circuits.
  • Now we have a tendency to come back to the crux of the problem, the rationale why Aleo is financed most into building the circuit compiler Leo – turning high level app concepts.
  •  ZK circuits are exceptionally slow as a result of having to manually place all the addition and multiplication gates to represent what computations ought to represent your app. 

Well, that’s the state of ZK circuit creation. You primarily have to be compelled to work on the circuit construction level as a result of there not being enough infrastructure to automatise low level, repetitive items nevertheless. and really it’s even worse than that. Not solely will we not nevertheless have these automations, however there’s tons of cryptographical data needed to even begin building ZK circuits. This barrier to entry would in most cases take individuals many months of full time and motion study to beat. Doesn’t specifically sound nice for development.

Leo Concept Summary

Leo could be a Rust-inspired statically typewritten artificial language engineered for writing non-public applications. It’s designed for developers to make intuitive decisions on the Aleo blockchain, providing the groundwork for a non-public, suburbanized scheme. It’s the primary acknowledged artificial language to introduce a testing framework, package written record, import resolver, remote compiler, and theorem generator for all-purpose, zero-knowledge applications.

  • Leo is meant to get rid of as several cryptographical data necessities as potential. Moreover, it’s designed to cherish Javascript and matter in order for the military of JS/TS developers.
  • Let’s jump forward and say you have written a Leo program, just like the bubble kind within the image higher than – what will Leo really do after you run the program.
  • It takes your code, constructs the proof circuit that represents the computation you would like to run, populates the input wires with the values you would like, runs the circuit, generates proving/verifying keys. 
  • These circuits combine all the relevant information into a ZKP. as an example, you may run it on the computer file within the image below.

But we have a tendency to affirm that you just don’t want abundant cryptographical data the least bit to use Leo, thus what’s all this proof creation stuff? The outline is that Leo outputs a signal that you just ran your computation properly, that means if you were to run the higher than circuit on some array and conferred the output array aboard the proof, any observers would be ready to make sure that the array was really sorted by checking the proof instead of the array.

Leo Circuit Framework Categorization

Now that will not sound like abundant if the array solely contains ten things, however after we begin operating with information structures that have many things, and a lot of advanced computations, checking the proof (which is usually constant size) starts to convey tons of worth. However, this isn’t a post regarding a way to derive worth from ZKPs, this post is to assist devs learn Leo so that they will build valuable applications themselves.

  • Leo additionally will quite simply build the circuit for you and generate the proof from it. it’s full of practicality that helps scale back developer times the maximum amount as potential. 
  • The testing framework, package written record and import resolver all work along to save lots of developers tons of your time making certain that external practicality is foreign simply, which the code is really will what it absolutely was expected to try to do.

When you build an associate degree scheme whose core aim is to permit the event of climbable applications that square measure non-public, one in every one of the simplest ways to nurture the expansion is to get rid of the maximum amount of friction in application development as potential. This is often what Leo helps to realize. If you would like to find out a lot of, investigate the playground or developer docs.


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